Koshelev Volcano and Koshelevsky thermal springs

Koshelev Volcano and Koshelevsky thermal springs. The Koshelevsky volcano represents by complex volcanic massif from five uneven-age volcanic constructions: the Drevne-Koshelevsky thyroid volcano ranepleystotsenovy age, the West Koshelevsky volcano with caldera instead the top, conical theValentine volcano with crater funnel is the area of 2 km, the East Koshelevsky volcano with flat top and the central-Koshelevsky volcano golotsenovy age with an active crater. The greatest height of a massif — 1812 m. Last eruption has occurred during historical time — in the end of XVII century. 

Till 1910 a name major general P.I. Koshelev has the next volcano, then the old name «Kambalny hill» has been returned it and the name of the commandant of Kamchatka has been given present to «the Koshelevsky volcano». 

The Kamchatka commandant major general P.I.Koshelev has entered a post in the summer of 1802, having replaced on this post of general Somova, caused a stir extreme abusings official powers. Koshelev, being, on responses of contemporaries, exclusively fair and diligent person, has led resolute struggle against local embezzlement of public funds, bribery and the unbridled arbitrariness, than has caused sharp discontent of the provincial Siberian authorities. 

Koshelev activity on Kamchatka, however, was highly appreciated by the head of the First sea round-the-world expedition I.F. Krusenstern. In stay in Petropavlovsk port of a frigate „Hope” (1804–1805) Kamchatka commander P. I. Koshelev has taken up all cares about crew of the first Russian ship which has made swimming from the Baltic to the Pacific ocean. «He really has assured us of excellent advantages and has got the right perfect our gratitude and respect», — Krusenstern wrote. Koshelev has accepted active participation in preparation of swimming of «Hope» in Japan. Going in September, 1804 from port of Petropavlovsk to Japan, Krusenstern named the most southern height of peninsula Kamchatka «in honour of the worthy Kamchatka governor hill of Koshelev» (modern hill Kambalny). 

Slandered by the subordinates who have arranged against him plot, Koshelev 1806 has been discharged of a post, and «business» have excited investigation. It lasted two years during which containing on Kamchatka under house arrest Koshelev was suffered indignity also to insults. In the autumn of 1809 he has been sent under arrest to Petersburg and was under the trail. The investigation lasted some years. With the beginning of the Patriotic War P.I.Koshelev has entered in national home guard and for special valour in fights with Frenchmen has been released by the imperial decree from trail. 

In borders of the Koshelevsky volcanic massif are two powerful thermal fields and a number of hot thermal springs. 

The Verhnekoshelevsky thermal field (known as «Rattling springs») is located in the crater of volcano Valentine at height of 1250–1400 m above sea level. The hollow is surrounded from three parties by rocky with sharp tops, with numerous snow on steep slopes, its bottom concerning hollow only in places of exits the terms. Strongly warm areas are free from snow within all year. The big sites of slopes the hollow and separate tops of the massif are combined by the changed streams of the rocks painted in bright yellow, orange and red tone. Here on the area of 3,3 km І are pulled out on a surface more than 40 streams warm fallow with temperature 120–1530°С, the expense from 0,1 to 0,4 kg/sek and speed of the expiration of steam to 100 km/s («Rattling fumaroly»). Some streams are beaten out directly in the channel of a stream, forming fountains in height to 3 m. Around — a lot of other various thermodisplays: warm soaring areas of the earth, warm streams, mud coppers and funnels with boiling water. All it creates a fantastic picture of the protogenic nature.The Verhne-Koshelevsky thermal field — large thermodisplay (heat carrying out makes about 50 thousand in kcal/c). 

The Nizhnekoshelevsky thermal field is located on the slope of caldera the West Koshelevsky volcano at height of 750–800 m along the narrow and deep ravine stretched in the latitude direction. Of 100–450 m are concentrated the boiling coppers, mud funnels, warm lakes, steam streams. Warm the soaring surface occupies the space more than 100 thousand м2. Heat carrying out in areas borders makes 24,8 thousand in kcal/with.  

The chemical compound Koshelevsky gaz-steam streams essentially does not differ from structure the Semjachiksky, the Kambalny or the North Mutnovsky. Steam condensates subacidic, a littleminiraliz gidrokarbonatno-ammonijnogo or gidrokarbonatno-natrievogo structure. As a part of gas the Verhnekoshelevsky term is more than hydrogen sulphide, and in the Nizhny-Koshelevsky terms — methane. 

By quantity of taken out heat, concentrate, volume and qualitative characteristics, hydrothermal activity of the Koshelevsky volcanic massif can be compared only with the Valley of geysers and such active volcanoes, as the Shiveluch and the Mutnovsky. Thermal fields represent the most interesting objects. 

In sources of the river Levoy Pauzhetka are located very colourful cold mineral springs «White falls». Transparent on an exit from cracks water of springs is literally on eyes grows white, getting milky colouring. Stones and a ground on stream coast become covered by white touch. Temperature of sources 4–50°С. The deposit on 60% consists from oxide aluminium and on 20% — of iron connections. On depth under a high pressure these connections are in the dissolved condition, but with a water exit on a surface pressure falls, and oxide aluminium drops out in a white deposit.