Natural zones and climate

Natural zones and climate. Natural Zones 

The entire territory of the preserve lies within the borders of the Eastern mountain-volcanic region. As a whole, the preserve can b echaracterized as mountain forest tundra. 

The preserve is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the East, and by the Sea of Okhotsk to the West; Lopatka Cape is bordered by Kuril Bay, which connects ocean and sea.  

The lowlands along the Sea of Okhotsk side are found: in isolated and small plots; in narrow strips in the interflow of the Pervaya and Tretiya rivers; in the lowlands of the Kambalnaya River south from the Moshkovskaya Mountain; and on Lopatka Cape itself.  

Here low-lying tundra alternates with 20-50-m high hills. The coastal terraces along the Sea of Okhotsk are mainly low, occupied by vegetation, and in some places have sandy, pumice, or rocky outcrops. The rockiest part is situated near Sivuchy Cape. The eastern oceanic side is occupied by spurs of nearby mountains. Terraces here are higher and rockier, and the coast has bays, coves, and cliffs. 


The climate is monsoon with seasonal changes in the wind direction. 

The winters are snowy and summers are cool and rainy. The westernmost coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula lies within the borders of the preserve, where it is influenced by severe weather systems. The weather here is extremely volatile. 

WINTER begins in early November and lasts to early April. Winter is relatively warm, but windy and mild, with the average temperature of the coldest month above -7°С. Lopatka Cape has some of the most severe weather conditions on the peninsula. High winds and heavy and prolonged snowfalls are observed here in the Preserve more than anywhere else in Kamchatka.The average wind speed here is the highest on Kamchatka (about 12 meters/second).  

There is no SUMMER on the southwestern coast in the common understanding the concept (where average daily temperatures rise above 10°C). The mean temperature of the warmest month (August) isbelow 10 °С. The vegetation period lasts 100–110 days, similar to areas in the north of Kamchatka Krai or in the foothills of the Valaginsky Ridge in the Kronotsky Reserve. The summer days here (in the months of July and August) here are frequently overcast and foggy. The average wind speed in summer remains rather high at 7 meters/second. 

The most favorable seasons are SPRING and AUTUMN. 

The rainfall in SPRING is minimal (about 50 mm per month); there are more sunny days than in any other season. Temperatures begin to warm up in early May and, in the second part of June, the temperature rises over +5°С — and the opposite occurs in mid-October and mid-November. 

The climatic features of the reserve’s volcanic highlands are characterized by abundant rainfall on the eastern slopes facing the Pacific Ocean. This is where the maximum precipitation occurs, with about 2,500 mm annually. Harsh and incessant driving snow and squalls are frequent here in winter (40–60 days in winter), so snow cover here reaches 1.5 to 3.0 m or more. 

Theclimate of the coastal lowlands is maritime and wet, common for the southeastern coast of the peninsula.