Relief and soils

Relief and soils. Relief 

The volcanic region is a high hilly dale with a variety of reliefs, formed by volcanic eruptions. It is slashed with deep lake-filled crevasses and circled by volcanoes, including Kambalny (2,156 m) — the southernmost volcano on Kamchatka at the tip of the Eastern Volcanic Ridge; Koshelev Volcano (1,812 m) — a ridge-like mass of joined volcanic structures; and the elegant Ilyinsky stratovolcano (1,578 m). All these volcanoes are active. The first two have thermal fields with active hydrothermal and fumarole processes. 

The Lopatkinsky, Plosky,and Belyayeva ranges rise to only 415–897 meters above sea level. 


As in other areas of Kamchatka with active volcanoes, soil composition depends on regional factors such as temperature, hydrology, and vegetation, as well as the physical and chemical peculiarities of volcanic sedimentations. Following eruptions, buriedsoilslosetheirfunctional characteristics and obtain new ones. Thedepthofthesoilcoverincreases and theyoungestlayers form the upper soil horizons.    

The most common soils in the reserve are ochre, layered ash volcanic, illuvial-humus tundra, meadow-sod, and peat-bog volcanic soils.